The people in Ireland, Wales and highland Scotland belonged to the Celtic race; those in England and lowland Scotland were mainly of Germanic origin. This difference was reflected in the languages they spoke. People in the Germanic areas spoke Germanic dialects including the one 5 which has developed into modern English. The nations also tended to have different economic, social and legal systems.
Today these differences have become blurred. But they have not completely disappeared. Although there is only one government for the whole of Britain, and people have the same passport regardless of where in Britain they live, some aspects of government are organizeds eparately and sometimes differently in the four parts of the United Kingdom. Moreover, Welsh, Scottish and Irish people feel their identity very strongly.
It is more commonly known as the Union Jack. The flag is a combination of crosses. The red upright cross represents St. George, the patron saint of England, St Andrew's cross of Scotland is the while diagonal one, and the red diagonal cross is of St.
This way you will be less likely to offend anyone. After all, most British people live there Populations in But it should always be remembered that England does not make up the whole of the UK. There has been a long history of migration from Scotland, Wales and Ireland to England. As a result, there are millions of people who live in England but who would never describe themselves as English.
They may have lived in England all their lives, but as far as they are concerned, they are Scottish or Welsh or Irish - even if, in the last case, they are citizens of Britain and not of Eire. These people support the country of their parents or grandparents rather than England in sporting contests. They would also, given the chance, play for that country rather than England. If, for example, you had heard the members of the 6 Republic of Ireland World Cup football team talking in , you would have heard several different kinds of English accent and some Scottish accents, but only a few Irish accents.
Most of the players did not live in Ireland and were not brought up in Ireland. Nevertheless, most of them would never have considered playing for any country other than Ireland! The same holds true for the further millions of British citizens whose family origins lie outside the British Isles altogether.
People of Caribbean or south Asian descent, for instance, do not mind being described as 'British' many are proud of it , but many of them would not like to be called 'English'. And whenever the West Indian or Indian cricket team plays against England, it is certainly not England that they support! There is, in fact, a complicated division of loyalties among many people in Britain, and especially in England.
A black person whose family are from the Caribbean will passionately support the West Indies when they play cricket against England.
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But the same person is quite happy to support England just as passionately in a sport such as football, which the West Indies do not play. A person whose family are from Ireland but who has always lived in England would want Ireland to beat England at football but would want England to beat for example Italy just as much. This crossover of loyalties can work the other way as well. An English commentator of a spotting event in which a Scottish, Irish or Welsh team is playing against a team from outside the British Isles tends to identify with that team as if it were English.
Climate The climate of Britain is more or less the same as that of the north-western part of the European mainland. The popular belief that it rains all the time in Britain is simply not true. The image of a wet, foggy land was created two thousand years ago by thein vading Romans and has been perpetuated in modern times by Hollywood.
In fact, London gets no more rain in a year than most other major European cities, and less than some. Generally speaking, the further west you go, the more rain you get. The mild winters mean that snow is a regular feature of the higher areas only. Occasionally, a whole winter goes by in lower-lying parts without any snow at all. The winters are in general a bit colder in the east of the country than they are in the west, while in summer; the south is slightly warmer and sunnier than the north.
Why has Britain's climate got such a bad reputation? Perhaps it is for the same reason that British people always seem to be talking about the weather. This is its changeability. There is a saying that Britain doesn't have a climate, it only has weather. It may no train verymu chal together, but you can never be sure of a dry day; there can be cool even cold days in July and some quite warm days in January.
The lack of extremes is the reason why, on the few occasions when it gets genuinely hot or freezing cold, the country seems to be totally unprepared for it. These people used hard stones called flint to make their tools and weapons. They lived in caves and killed wild animals for meat. Between about and B. They were called New Stone Age men, because their stone tools were polished.
They grew crops, raised cattle and tamed dogs for hunting. One of the most remarkable remains of the early inhabitants is Stonehenge. It is a great circle of stones in Wiltshire. Stonehenge is believed to have stood on Salisbury Plain for about years. No one knows exactly for what purposes it was built, but one theory is that it was a place where people could observe the movements of the sun for the purpose of agriculture.
By keeping watch on the sun, people would know the right time for planting and harvesting. The Celts Between about and B. They settledin Wales, Cornwall, Scotland and Ireland and used iron to make their tools and weapons. They also built villages and farms, and started a communal life. They spoke the Celtic language. Their religion was Druidism and their priests were called Druids. The Romans In 55 B. The famous Roman general, Julius Caesarand his army managed to land on the shores of Kent, but the Celts resisted bravely and Caesar was driven away.
In 54 B. Caesar returned but again he was forced to withdraw. Nearly a hundred years after the first invasion, in 43A. This time the Roman army was so powerful that the Celtic tribes were soon defeated and the area that is now England was occupied by the Romans. For nearly years what is now England was part of the Roman Empire as the province of 9 Britannia and many things were learned from the Roman civilization.
The main Celtic town became Londinium, the capital and trading centre of Britannia. The town of Bath became famous for its natural hot springs. Large houses and villas were built, and long straight roads were made. The Romans were good road builders. The Celtic nobles adopted the Roman way of life.
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They lived in villas and spoke Latin. The Romans introduced new kinds of animals and plants into England, including geese and hens, and cherry and pear trees. Today the remains of Roman cities, baths, houses, villas and theatres can still be seen. One of the most impressive remains of the Roman time is the wall built by Emperor Hadrian in A. Parts of Hadrian's Wall still stand on the Scottish border. At the beginning of the 5th century, the Romans had troubles in their empire and in Roman troops began to withdraw from Britain.
The Anglo-Saxons settled in Britain and a number of small kingdoms were established. The Anglo-Saxons were pagan. In a Roman missionary, St. Augustine was sent to Britain to bring Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons and Ethelbert, the king of Kent, was converted to Christianity. The first church was built in Canterbury, the capital of Kern. Christianity spread and had a great influence upon the learning and culture of Britain. The Anglo-Saxons kingdoms usually fought and competed for predominance over the whole country.
The greatest and most powerful kingdoms were 10 Nothumbria, Mercia and Wessex.
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At the beginning of the 9th century, Wessex became the strongest. Its king, Egbert, was acknowledged by the other kingdoms and he became the first king of The United Kingdoms of England in These sea-raiders came by boat to the coast parts of northern and southeastern Britain. They attacked and killed people, burnt villages, robbed the churches and sailed away with treasure.
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King Alfred - the Great of England defeated the Danes in many battles, but in a treaty was signed and the Danes were given a section of England called Danelaw. The Danes settled in Danelaw and gradually inter-married with Anglo-Saxons. Harold was chosen to be King but in northwestern France, William, Duke of Normandy, claimed that both Edward the Confessor and Harold had promised him the throne.
Therefore, William gathered an army and fought for his claim. The Norman invasion was an important event in the history of Britain, and it was the last foreign invasion. The Norman conquest began with the battle of Hastings where Harold was defeated and killed by an arrow in the eye. The coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, and since then all the coronations of English monarchs have been held there, William I is known as William the Conqueror.
Under Norman rule, England was brought into closer contact with continental Europe. Great changes were made in English society. Feudalism was established. A system of laws and law courts were organized. The method of land cultivation was improved and many castles and cathedrals were built. In , William I ordered the Domesday Book to be compiled. It is the record of as urvey of the economic life of England.
Williams officials measured the land and recorded the names of the holders as well as the number of animals that they kept. The Domesday Book provided the necessary information for a tax purpose. Instead, the government system, which has evolved over centuries, is defined by statutes, habits and customs rather than by law. These habits and customs become rules and conventions, some of which are unwritten.
The British legal system is based on common law and precedent.
The Legislature is the two Houses of Parliament, the Executive is the Government and the Judiciary is only theoretical. The Monarchy is the oldest institution of government. There are interesting contradictions in the role of the monarch. According to the written law, the Queen has absolute power.
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Judged from the appearance, it would seem that the Queen is above the law with the government belonging to her. The Queen has the right to choose anyone to be the Prime Minister, but in reality, she chooses the head of the party that wins in the general election so that she can enjoy the majority of support. She can also appoint other ministerial positions and if she wants, she can dismiss them. But in practice, it is the Prime Minister who chooses the ministers. The Queen has the right to summon the Parliament or dissolve it even before a general election. But so far, there has never been any king or queen who said no to the bills.
The Monarch's Role In spite of gradual decline in the monarch's power, the Queen is still respected and supported by the majority of Britons. The monarchy still has its own values and is very popular with most British people.
The British regard the monarch as a personal embodiment of the government of the country. To them, the monarch is part of their national pride and a symbol of continuity. The Queen represents tradition. The royal life with its royal activities is a source of entertainment that helps make life more vivid and colorful and attracts many tourists. The monarch acts as a final check on government. She meets The Prime Minister once a week to discuss national affairs and so, she is well-informed. Because the monarch has the right to refuse the royal assent to a bill, or even to dismiss the Prime Minister if he turns out to be a disqualified person, she helps to purify the government.
As the figurehead of the country, the monarch represents it when performing ceremonial duties. She receives ambassadors and visitors from abroad, visits foreign countries, and opens schools and hospitals, so that the Prime Minister has more time to run national affairs. The Parliament The British Parliament consists of three separate elements: the Queen, the House of Lords and the House of commons and has a maximum duration of five years. A general election is held before the end of each term. Some important functions of Parliament are to make law, to provide the means of carrying on the work of government, to scrutinize government policy and to debate issues.
This is a very big building with a lot of facilities and two large chambers. Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. They are not elected. They either qualify to sit in the House or inherit their seats from their father. Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.
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Principles of Microeconomics Sixth Edition N. Principles of Microeconomics, 6E N. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation used herein under license. For your course and learning solutions, visit www. Gregory Mankiw is professor of economics at Harvard University. As a teacher, he has taught macroeconomics, microeconomics, statistics, and principles of economics. He even spent one summer long ago as a sailing instructor on Long Beach Island. Professor Mankiw is a prolific writer and a regular participant in academic and policy debates. He is also author of the best-selling intermediate-level textbook Macroeconomics Worth Publishers.
Professor Mankiw lives in Wellesley, Massachusetts, with his wife, Deborah, three children, Catherine, Nicholas, and Peter, and their border terrier, Tobin. Why should you, as a student at the beginning of the 21st century, embark on the study of economics? There are three reasons. The first reason to study economics is that it will help you understand the world in which you live.
There are many questions about the economy that might spark your curiosity. Why are apartments so hard to find in New York City? Why do airlines charge less for a round-trip ticket if the traveler stays over a Saturday night? Why is Johnny Depp paid so much to star in movies?
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Why are living standards so meager in many African countries? Why do some countries have high rates of inflation while others have stable prices? Why are jobs easy to find in some years and hard to find in others? These are just a few of the questions that a course in economics will help you answer. The second reason to study economics is that it will make you a more astute participant in the economy. As you go about your life, you make many economic decisions. While you are a student, you decide how many years to stay in school. Once you take a job, you decide how much of your income to spend, how much to save, and how to invest your savings.
Someday you may find yourself running a small business or a large corporation, and you will decide what prices to charge for your products. The insights developed in the coming chapters will give you a new perspective on how best to make these decisions. Studying economics will not by itself make you rich, but it will give you some tools that may help in that endeavor. The third reason to study economics is that it will give you a better understanding of both the potential and the limits of economic policy.